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She suffered from severe roll but little pitch. The ship's crew numbered 36 officers and enlisted men, and while serving as a flagship , the crew was augmented with a command staff composed of 9 officers and 47 enlisted men.
König Wilhelm carried a number of smaller boats, including two picket boats, two launches , a pinnace , two cutters , two yawls , and one dinghy.
Steering was controlled with a single rudder. As built, König Wilhelm was equipped with thirty-three rifled pounder cannon.
After her delivery to Germany, these guns were replaced with eighteen centimeter 9. These guns were mounted in a central battery, with nine on either broadside.
The torpedo tubes were supplied with a total of 13 rounds. Following her conversion into a training ship, most of her armament was removed.
The ship only carried sixteen 8. As built, the ship was protected by wrought iron plating mounted over teak backing.
During her reconstruction into an armored cruiser, the iron armor was cut away and replaced with stronger steel armor. The conning tower received armor protection during the refit as well.
The ship was laid down in and the Prussians purchased her on 6 February , initially renaming her Wilhelm I. They changed her name again to König Wilhelm on 14 December, and she was launched on 25 April After completing fitting-out , she was commissioned less than a year later, on 20 February The latter vessel quickly rejoined the ships there and on 1 July they departed for a training cruise to Fayal in the Azores , Portugal.
But tensions with France over the Hohenzollern candidacy for the vacant Spanish throne were reaching a crisis point.
While they cruised east through the English Channel , they learned of the increasing likelihood of war, and the Prussians detached Prinz Adalbert to Dartmouth to be kept informed of events.
The rest of the squadron joined her there on 13 July, and as war seemed to be imminent, the Prussians ended the cruise and returned to home.
The greatly numerically inferior Prussian Navy assumed a defensive posture against a naval blockade imposed by the French Navy.
Kronprinz , Friedrich Carl , and König Wilhelm were concentrated in the North Sea at the port of Wilhelmshaven, with a view toward breaking the French blockade of the port.
They were subsequently joined there by the turret ship Arminius , which had been stationed in Kiel.
Despite the great French naval superiority, the French had conducted insufficient pre-war planning for an assault on the Prussian naval installations, and concluded that it would only be possible with Danish assistance, which was not forthcoming.
The four ships, under the command of Vizeadmiral Vice Admiral Eduard von Jachmann , made an offensive sortie in early August out to the Dogger Bank , though they encountered no French warships.
König Wilhelm and the other two broadside ironclads thereafter suffered from chronic engine trouble, which left Arminius alone to conduct operations.
It too did not encounter French opposition, as the French Navy had by this time returned to France.
After the war, the Prussian Navy became the Imperial Navy , and resumed its peacetime training routines. General Albrecht von Stosch became the chief of the Imperial Navy, and organized the fleet for coastal defense.
Henry the Young King had been crowned King of England in , but was not given any formal powers by his father; he was also promised Normandy and Anjou as part of his future inheritance.
His brother Richard was to be appointed the Count of Poitou with control of Aquitaine, whilst his brother Geoffrey was to become the Duke of Brittany.
In John's elder brothers, backed by Eleanor, rose in revolt against Henry in the short-lived rebellion of to Growing irritated with his subordinate position to Henry II and increasingly worried that John might be given additional lands and castles at his expense,  Henry the Young King travelled to Paris and allied himself with Louis VII.
John had spent the conflict travelling alongside his father, and was given widespread possessions across the Angevin empire as part of the Montlouis settlement; from then onwards, most observers regarded John as Henry II's favourite child, although he was the furthest removed in terms of the royal succession.
In he appropriated the estates of the late Earl of Cornwall and gave them to John. Henry the Young King fought a short war with his brother Richard in over the status of England, Normandy and Aquitaine.
In John made his first visit to Ireland , accompanied by knights and a team of administrators. Ireland had only recently been conquered by Anglo-Norman forces, and tensions were still rife between Henry II, the new settlers and the existing inhabitants.
The problems amongst John's wider family continued to grow. His elder brother Geoffrey died during a tournament in , leaving a posthumous son, Arthur , and an elder daughter, Eleanor.
Richard began discussions about a potential alliance with Philip II in Paris during , and the next year Richard gave homage to Philip in exchange for support for a war against Henry.
When Richard became king in September , he had already declared his intention of joining the Third Crusade. The King named his four-year-old nephew Arthur as his heir.
The political situation in England rapidly began to deteriorate. Longchamp refused to work with Puiset and became unpopular with the English nobility and clergy.
The political turmoil continued. John hoped to acquire Normandy, Anjou and the other lands in France held by Richard in exchange for allying himself with Philip.
He agreed to set aside his wife, Isabella of Gloucester, and marry Philip's sister, Alys , in exchange for Philip's support. For the remaining years of Richard's reign, John supported his brother on the continent, apparently loyally.
After Richard's death on 6 April there were two potential claimants to the Angevin throne: John, whose claim rested on being the sole surviving son of Henry II, and young Arthur I of Brittany, who held a claim as the son of John's elder brother Geoffrey.
Arthur was supported by the majority of the Breton, Maine and Anjou nobles and received the support of Philip II, who remained committed to breaking up the Angevin territories on the continent.
Warfare in Normandy at the time was shaped by the defensive potential of castles and the increasing costs of conducting campaigns.
After his coronation, John moved south into France with military forces and adopted a defensive posture along the eastern and southern Normandy borders.
John and Philip negotiated the May Treaty of Le Goulet ; by this treaty, Philip recognised John as the rightful heir to Richard in respect to his French possessions, temporarily abandoning the wider claims of his client, Arthur.
In order to remarry, John first needed to abandon his wife Isabella, Countess of Gloucester; the King accomplished this by arguing that he had failed to get the necessary papal dispensation to marry the Countess in the first place — as a cousin, John could not have legally wed her without this.
Contemporary chroniclers argued that John had fallen deeply in love with her, and John may have been motivated by desire for an apparently beautiful, if rather young, girl.
Isabella, however, was already engaged to Hugh IX of Lusignan , an important member of a key Poitou noble family and brother of Raoul I, Count of Eu , who possessed lands along the sensitive eastern Normandy border.
Although John was the Count of Poitou and therefore the rightful feudal lord over the Lusignans, they could legitimately appeal John's actions in France to his own feudal lord, Philip.
He argued that he need not attend Philip's court because of his special status as the Duke of Normandy, who was exempt by feudal tradition from being called to the French court.
John initially adopted a defensive posture similar to that of avoiding open battle and carefully defending his key castles.
Accompanied by William de Roches, his seneschal in Anjou, he swung his mercenary army rapidly south to protect her. John's position in France was considerably strengthened by the victory at Mirebeau, but John's treatment of his new prisoners and of his ally, William de Roches, quickly undermined these gains.
De Roches was a powerful Anjou noble, but John largely ignored him, causing considerable offence, whilst the King kept the rebel leaders in such bad conditions that twenty-two of them died.
Further desertions of John's local allies at the beginning of steadily reduced his freedom to manoeuvre in the region. After this, Arthur's fate remains uncertain, but modern historians believe he was murdered by John.
The eastern border region of Normandy had been extensively cultivated by Philip and his predecessors for several years, whilst Angevin authority in the south had been undermined by Richard's giving away of various key castles some years before.
John's mother Eleanor died the following month. The nature of government under the Angevin monarchs was ill-defined and uncertain.
John's predecessors had ruled using the principle of vis et voluntas "force and will" , taking executive and sometimes arbitrary decisions, often justified on the basis that a king was above the law.
John inherited a sophisticated system of administration in England, with a range of royal agents answering to the Royal Household: the Chancery kept written records and communications; the Treasury and the Exchequer dealt with income and expenditure respectively; and various judges were deployed to deliver justice around the kingdom.
The administration of justice was of particular importance to John. Several new processes had been introduced to English law under Henry II, including novel disseisin and mort d'ancestor.
One of John's principal challenges was acquiring the large sums of money needed for his proposed campaigns to reclaim Normandy.
Revenue from the royal demesne was inflexible and had been diminishing slowly since the Norman conquest.
Matters were not helped by Richard's sale of many royal properties in , and taxation played a much smaller role in royal income than in later centuries.
English kings had widespread feudal rights which could be used to generate income, including the scutage system, in which feudal military service was avoided by a cash payment to the King.
He derived income from fines, court fees and the sale of charters and other privileges. The result was a sequence of innovative but unpopular financial measures.
At the start of John's reign there was a sudden change in prices , as bad harvests and high demand for food resulted in much higher prices for grain and animals.
This inflationary pressure was to continue for the rest of the 13th century and had long-term economic consequences for England.
The result was political unrest across the country. John's royal household was based around several groups of followers.
One group was the familiares regis , his immediate friends and knights who travelled around the country with him. They also played an important role in organising and leading military campaigns.
This intensified under John's rule, with many lesser nobles arriving from the continent to take up positions at court; many were mercenary leaders from Poitou.
This trend for the King to rely on his own men at the expense of the barons was exacerbated by the tradition of Angevin royal ira et malevolentia "anger and ill-will" and John's own personality.
John was deeply suspicious of the barons, particularly those with sufficient power and wealth to potentially challenge the King.
John's personal life greatly affected his reign. Contemporary chroniclers state that John was sinfully lustful and lacking in piety.
None of his known illegitimate children were born after he remarried, and there is no actual documentary proof of adultery after that point, although John certainly had female friends amongst the court throughout the period.
John married Isabella whilst she was relatively young — her exact date of birth is uncertain, and estimates place her between at most 15 and more probably towards nine years old at the time of her marriage.
Chroniclers recorded that John had a "mad infatuation" with Isabella, and certainly the King and Queen had conjugal relationships between at least and ; they had five children.
John's lack of religious conviction has been noted by contemporary chroniclers and later historians, with some suspecting that he was at best impious, or even atheistic , a very serious issue at the time.
They commented on the paucity of John's charitable donations to the Church. During the remainder of his reign, John focused on trying to retake Normandy.
John spent much of securing England against a potential French invasion. John had already begun to improve his Channel forces before the loss of Normandy and he rapidly built up further maritime capabilities after its collapse.
Most of these ships were placed along the Cinque Ports , but Portsmouth was also enlarged. During the truce of —, John focused on building up his financial and military resources in preparation for another attempt to recapture Normandy.
He launched his new fleet to attack the French at the harbour of Damme. In the late 12th and early 13th centuries the border and political relationship between England and Scotland was disputed, with the kings of Scotland claiming parts of what is now northern England.
He refused William's request for the earldom of Northumbria , but did not intervene in Scotland itself and focused on his continental problems.
John remained Lord of Ireland throughout his reign. He drew on the country for resources to fight his war with Philip on the continent.
Simmering tensions remained with the native Irish leaders even after John left for England. Royal power in Wales was unevenly applied, with the country divided between the marcher lords along the borders, royal territories in Pembrokeshire and the more independent native Welsh lords of North Wales.
John took a close interest in Wales and knew the country well, visiting every year between and and marrying his illegitimate daughter, Joan , to the Welsh prince Llywelyn the Great.
Llywelyn came to terms that included an expansion of John's power across much of Wales, albeit only temporarily. The Norman and Angevin kings had traditionally exercised a great deal of power over the church within their territories.
From the s onwards, however, successive popes had put forward a reforming message that emphasised the importance of the Church being "governed more coherently and more hierarchically from the centre" and established "its own sphere of authority and jurisdiction, separate from and independent of that of the lay ruler", in the words of historian Richard Huscroft.
John wanted John de Gray , the Bishop of Norwich and one of his own supporters, to be appointed Archbishop of Canterbury, but the cathedral chapter for Canterbury Cathedral claimed the exclusive right to elect the Archbishop.
They favoured Reginald , the chapter's sub-prior. John refused Innocent's request that he consent to Langton's appointment, but the Pope consecrated Langton anyway in June John was incensed about what he perceived as an abrogation of his customary right as monarch to influence the election.
Innocent then placed an interdict on England in March , prohibiting clergy from conducting religious services, with the exception of baptisms for the young, and confessions and absolutions for the dying.
John treated the interdict as "the equivalent of a papal declaration of war". Innocent gave some dispensations as the crisis progressed.
By , though, John was increasingly worried about the threat of French invasion. Under mounting political pressure, John finally negotiated terms for a reconciliation, and the papal terms for submission were accepted in the presence of the papal legate Pandulf Verraccio in May at the Templar Church at Dover.
This resolution produced mixed responses. Although some chroniclers felt that John had been humiliated by the sequence of events, there was little public reaction.
Tensions between John and the barons had been growing for several years, as demonstrated by the plot against the King.
The northern barons rarely had any personal stake in the conflict in France, and many of them owed large sums of money to John; the revolt has been characterised as "a rebellion of the king's debtors".
In John began his final campaign to reclaim Normandy from Philip. He was optimistic, as he had successfully built up alliances with the Emperor Otto, Renaud of Boulogne and Ferdinand of Flanders; he was enjoying papal favour; and he had successfully built up substantial funds to pay for the deployment of his experienced army.
The first part of the campaign went well, with John outmanoeuvring the forces under the command of Prince Louis and retaking the county of Anjou by the end of June.
Within a few months of John's return, rebel barons in the north and east of England were organising resistance to his rule. This was particularly important for John, as a way of pressuring the barons but also as a way of controlling Stephen Langton, the Archbishop of Canterbury.
Letters of support from the Pope arrived in April but by then the rebel barons had organised.
They congregated at Northampton in May and renounced their feudal ties to John, appointing Robert fitz Walter as their military leader.
John met the rebel leaders at Runnymede , near Windsor Castle , on 15 June Neither John nor the rebel barons seriously attempted to implement the peace accord.
The rebels made the first move in the war, seizing the strategic Rochester Castle , owned by Langton but left almost unguarded by the archbishop.
He had stockpiled money to pay for mercenaries and ensured the support of the powerful marcher lords with their own feudal forces, such as William Marshal and Ranulf de Blondeville, 6th Earl of Chester.
John's campaign started well. One chronicler had not seen "a siege so hard pressed or so strongly resisted", whilst historian Reginald Brown describes it as "one of the greatest [siege] operations in England up to that time".
The rebel barons responded by inviting the French prince Louis to lead them: Louis had a claim to the English throne by virtue of his marriage to Blanche of Castile , a granddaughter of Henry II.
Prince Louis intended to land in the south of England in May , and John assembled a naval force to intercept him.
By the end of the summer the rebels had regained the south-east of England and parts of the north. In September , John began a fresh, vigorous attack.
He marched from the Cotswolds , feigned an offensive to relieve the besieged Windsor Castle , and attacked eastwards around London to Cambridge to separate the rebel-held areas of Lincolnshire and East Anglia.
Isabeau of Bavaria 1. Henry VII of England John Beaufort, 1st Earl of Somerset 6. John Beaufort, 1st Duke of Somerset Margaret Holland 3.
Margaret Beaufort John Beauchamp 7. Margaret Beauchamp Edith Stourton. Richard the Third. Henry VII. The Isles — A History. The Earlier Tudors — Welsh Nationalism and Henry Tudor.
Monarchy: From the Middle Ages to Modernity. Retrieved 7 February History Points. Retrieved 14 January Rees, David London: Black Raven Press.
Williams, Neville. Chrimes, Henry VII , p. Retrieved 4 March The Oxford History of Britain. The Princes in the Tower , p.
Chrimes, Henry VII , pp. The Perkin Warbeck Conspiracy. History Press Limited. Chrimes, p.
The Oxford History of Britain : — Arcturus Publishing. Sizes, Inc. Retrieved 13 September Online Curry, Simon and Schuster.
Archived from the original on 27 June Retrieved 16 November Queen to History. Retrieved 9 March Tudor Times. His infant son, Edward, who died four years afterward , was also buried in the Abbey.
The first grave in the new Chapel was that of his wife, Elizabeth of York. She died in giving birth to a child who survived but a short time.
Cambridge University Press. Chrimes, Henry VII , 67 n3. London: Vintage Books. Monarchs of England and Scotland after the Union of the Crowns from British monarchs after the Acts of Union Wars of the Roses.
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Wikimedia Commons Wikiquote Wikisource. Download as PDF Printable version. Edmund Tudor, 1st Earl of Richmond. Lady Margaret Beaufort.
English Royalty. Prince of Wales , heir apparent from birth to death. Possibly confused with Edmund.
Styled Duke of Somerset but never formally created a peer. He is sometimes presented as the clear " illegitimate issue" of Henry VII of England by "a Breton lady whose name is not known".
The possibility this was Henry's illegitimate son is baseless. Maredudd ap Tudur. Owen Tudor. Margaret ferch Dafydd. Charles VI of France.
Catherine of Valois. Isabeau of Bavaria. Henry VII of England. John Beaufort, 1st Earl of Somerset. John Beaufort, 1st Duke of Somerset.
Margaret Holland. Margaret Beaufort. John Beauchamp. Margaret Beauchamp. Wikisource has original works written by or about: Henry VII.
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He was supported in this effort by his chancellor, Archbishop John Morton , whose " Morton's Fork " was a catch method of ensuring that nobles paid increased taxes: those nobles who spent little must have saved much, and thus they could afford the increased taxes; on the other hand, those nobles who spent much obviously had the means to pay the increased taxes.
The capriciousness and lack of due process that indebted many would tarnish his legacy and were soon ended upon Henry VII's death, after a commission revealed widespread abuses.
He established the pound avoirdupois as a standard of weight; it later became part of the Imperial  and customary systems of units.
Henry VII's policy was both to maintain peace and to create economic prosperity. Up to a point, he succeeded.
Based on the terms of the accord, Henry sent troops to fight at the expense of Brittany under the command of Lord Daubeney.
The purpose of the agreement was to prevent France from annexing Brittany. According to John M. Currin, the treaty redefined Anglo-Breton relations, Henry started a new policy to recover Guyenne and other lost Plantagenet claims in France.
The treaty marks a shift from neutrality over the French invasion of Brittany to active intervention against it. Henry later conclude a treaty with France at Etaples that brought money into the coffers of England, and ensured the French would not support pretenders to the English throne, such as Perkin Warbeck.
However, this treaty came at a slight price, as Henry mounted a minor invasion of Brittany in November Henry decided to keep Brittany out of French hands, signed an alliance with Spain to that end, and sent 6, troops to France.
However, as France was becoming more concerned with the Italian Wars , the French were happy to agree to the Treaty of Etaples. Henry had been under the financial and physical protection of the French throne or its vassals for most of his life, before he became king.
To strengthen his position, however, he subsidised shipbuilding, so strengthening the navy he commissioned Europe's first ever — and the world's oldest surviving — dry dock at Portsmouth in and improving trading opportunities.
Henry VII was one of the first European monarchs to recognise the importance of the newly united Spanish kingdom; he concluded the Treaty of Medina del Campo , by which his son, Arthur Tudor , was married to Catherine of Aragon.
Though this was not achieved during his reign, the marriage eventually led to the union of the English and Scottish crowns under Margaret's great-grandson, James VI and I , following the death of Henry's granddaughter Elizabeth I.
Henry VII was much enriched by trading alum , which was used in the wool and cloth trades as a chemical fixative for dyeing fabrics.
With the English economy heavily invested in wool production, Henry VII became involved in the alum trade in With the assistance of the Italian merchant banker Lodovico della Fava and the Italian banker Girolamo Frescobaldi, Henry VII became deeply involved in the trade by licensing ships, obtaining alum from the Ottoman Empire , and selling it to the Low Countries and in England.
Henry's most successful diplomatic achievement as regards the economy was the Magnus Intercursus "great agreement" of In , Henry embargoed trade mainly in wool with the Netherlands in retaliation for Margaret of Burgundy's support for Perkin Warbeck.
The Merchant Adventurers , the company which enjoyed the monopoly of the Flemish wool trade, relocated from Antwerp to Calais.
At the same time, Flemish merchants were ejected from England. The stand-off eventually paid off for Henry. Both parties realised they were mutually disadvantaged by the reduction in commerce.
Its restoration by the Magnus Intercursus was very much to England's benefit in removing taxation for English merchants and significantly increasing England's wealth.
Philip had been shipwrecked on the English coast, and while Henry's guest, was bullied into an agreement so favourable to England at the expense of the Netherlands that it was dubbed the Malus Intercursus "evil agreement".
Philip died shortly after the negotiations. Henry's principal problem was to restore royal authority in a realm recovering from the Wars of the Roses.
There were too many powerful noblemen and, as a consequence of the system of so-called bastard feudalism , each had what amounted to private armies of indentured retainers mercenaries masquerading as servants.
He was content to allow the nobles their regional influence if they were loyal to him. For instance, the Stanley family had control of Lancashire and Cheshire, upholding the peace on the condition that they stayed within the law.
In other cases, he brought his over-powerful subjects to heel by decree. He passed laws against "livery" the upper classes' flaunting of their adherents by giving them badges and emblems and "maintenance" the keeping of too many male "servants".
These laws were used shrewdly in levying fines upon those that he perceived as threats. However, his principal weapon was the Court of Star Chamber.
This revived an earlier practice of using a small and trusted group of the Privy Council as a personal or Prerogative Court, able to cut through the cumbersome legal system and act swiftly.
Serious disputes involving the use of personal power, or threats to royal authority, were thus dealt with. They were appointed for every shire and served for a year at a time.
Their chief task was to see that the laws of the country were obeyed in their area. Their powers and numbers steadily increased during the time of the Tudors, never more so than under Henry's reign.
All Acts of Parliament were overseen by the Justices of the Peace. For example, Justices of the Peace could replace suspect jurors in accordance with the act preventing the corruption of juries.
They were also in charge of various administrative duties, such as the checking of weights and measures.
They were unpaid, which, in comparison with modern standards, meant a lesser tax bill to pay for a police force. Local gentry saw the office as one of local influence and prestige and were therefore willing to serve.
Overall, this was a successful area of policy for Henry, both in terms of efficiency and as a method of reducing the corruption endemic within the nobility of the Middle Ages.
In , Henry VII's life took a difficult and personal turn in which many people he was close to died in quick succession. His first son and heir apparent, Arthur, Prince of Wales , died suddenly at Ludlow Castle , very likely from a viral respiratory illness known at the time as the " English sweating sickness ".
The King, normally a reserved man who rarely showed much emotion in public unless angry, surprised his courtiers by his intense grief and sobbing at his son's death, while his concern for the Queen is evidence that the marriage was a happy one, as is his reaction to the Queen's death the following year, when he shut himself away for several days, refusing to speak to anyone.
Henry VII wanted to maintain the Spanish alliance. He, therefore, arranged a papal dispensation from Pope Julius II for Prince Henry to marry his brother's widow Catherine, a relationship that would have otherwise precluded marriage in the Roman Catholic Church.
In , Queen Elizabeth died in childbirth, so King Henry had the dispensation also permit him to marry Catherine himself. After obtaining the dispensation, Henry had second thoughts about the marriage of his son and Catherine.
Catherine's mother Isabella I of Castile had died and Catherine's sister Joanna had succeeded her; Catherine was, therefore, daughter of only one reigning monarch and so less desirable as a spouse for Henry VII's heir-apparent.
The marriage did not take place during his lifetime. Otherwise, at the time of his father's arranging of the marriage to Catherine of Aragon, the future Henry VIII was too young to contract the marriage according to Canon Law and would be ineligible until age fourteen.
Henry made half-hearted plans to remarry and beget more heirs, but these never came to anything. In he was sufficiently interested in a potential marriage to Joan , the recently widowed Queen of Naples, that he sent ambassadors to Naples to report on the year-old's physical suitability.
Henry VII was shattered by the loss of Elizabeth, and her death broke his heart. During his lifetime the nobility often jeered him for re-centralizing power in London, and later the 16th-century historian Francis Bacon was ruthlessly critical of the methods by which he enforced tax law, but it is equally true that Henry Tudor was hellbent on keeping detailed records of his personal finances, down to the last halfpenny;  these and one account book detailing the expenses of his queen survive in the British National Archives, as do accounts of courtiers and many of the king's own letters.
Until the death of his wife, the evidence is clear from these accounting books that Henry Tudor was a more doting father and husband than was widely known and there is evidence that his outwardly austere personality belied a devotion to his family.
Letters to relatives have an affectionate tone not captured by official state business, as evidenced by many written to his mother Margaret.
Many of the entries show a man who loosened his purse strings generously for his wife and children, and not just on necessities: in spring he spent a great amount of gold on a lute for his daughter Mary; the following year he spent money on a lion for Elizabeth's menagerie.
With Elizabeth's death, the possibilities for such family indulgences greatly diminished. His mother survived him but died two months later on 29 June Henry is the first English king of whose appearance good contemporary visual records in realistic portraits exist that are relatively free of idealization.
At 27, he was tall and slender, with small blue eyes, which were said to have a noticeable animation of expression, and noticeably bad teeth in a long, sallow face beneath very fair hair.
Amiable and high-spirited, Henry was friendly if dignified in manner, and it was clear to everyone that he was extremely intelligent.
His biographer, Professor Chrimes, credits him — even before he had become king — with "a high degree of personal magnetism, ability to inspire confidence, and a growing reputation for shrewd decisiveness".
On the debit side, he may have looked a little delicate as he suffered from poor health. By historians emphasised Henry's wisdom in drawing lessons in statecraft from other monarchs.
By the "New Monarchy" interpretation stressed the common factors that in each country led to the revival of monarchical power.
This approach raised puzzling questions about similarities and differences in the development of national states. In the late 20th century a model of European state formation was prominent in which Henry less resembles Louis and Ferdinand.
Arthur Tudor , Prince of Wales , eldest son, first husband of Catherine of Aragon ; predeceased father without progeny.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. King of England, — King of England. Henry holding a rose and wearing the collar of the Order of the Golden Fleece , by unknown artist, Westminster Abbey , London.
Elizabeth of York m. Royal Coat of Arms. Further information: Mad War. Maredudd ap Tudur 4. Owen Tudor 9. Margaret ferch Dafydd 2. Edmund Tudor, 1st Earl of Richmond Charles VI of France 5.
Catherine of Valois Isabeau of Bavaria 1. Henry VII of England John Beaufort, 1st Earl of Somerset 6.
John Beaufort, 1st Duke of Somerset Margaret Holland 3. Margaret Beaufort John Beauchamp 7. Margaret Beauchamp Edith Stourton. Richard the Third.
Henry VII. The Isles — A History. The Earlier Tudors — Welsh Nationalism and Henry Tudor. Monarchy: From the Middle Ages to Modernity.
Retrieved 7 February History Points. Retrieved 14 January Rees, David London: Black Raven Press. Williams, Neville. Chrimes, Henry VII , p.
Retrieved 4 March The Oxford History of Britain. The Princes in the Tower , p. Chrimes, Henry VII , pp.
The Perkin Warbeck Conspiracy. History Press Limited. Chrimes, p. The Oxford History of Britain : — Arcturus Publishing.
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